Agriculture | Potato | เพลง แพ้ ใจ, แพ้ ใจ, แพ้ ใจ potato, red potato salad, easy potato salad, best potato salad, potato salad recipes, german potato salad, potato salad, potato bug - Potato plant (Solanum tuberosum) is a member of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, a family of flowering plants that also includes the eggplant, mandrake, deadly nightshade or belladonna, tobacco, tomato, and petunia. Its starchy tubers, called potatoes, are one of the world's most commonly grown and important food crops.
Potatoes are the world's most widely grown tuber crop, and the fourth largest crop in terms of fresh produce (after rice, wheat, and maize), but this ranking is inflated due to the high water content of fresh potatoes relative to that of other crops. The potato is native to in the Andes, likely somewhere in present-day Peru or Bolivia, and spread to the rest of the world after European contact with the Americas in the late 1400s and early 1500s.
Being easy to grow and having excellent nutritional value (although raw and wild potatoes have some toxicity concerns), the potato was the major staple crop of Ireland when the potato famine hit in the mid-nineteenth century, costing millions of lives. That crisis revealed some of the worse of human nature and misapplication of religious beliefs. Some Irish Catholics simply accepted their fate as divine providence. On the other hand, some Protestants considered it punishment brought on by the Catholics for practicing a flawed religion--even requiring starving families to convert to Protestantism before they would be given food, thus ignoring Jesus' dictum to love one's enemy and the religious principle of living for the sake of others.
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is another crop plant with large, starchy, tubers (from roots), but is only distantly related to the potato (Solanum tuberosum). Although the sweet potato is sometimes known as yam in the United States, it is unrelated to the botanical yam.
The potato plant is an herbaceous perennial in that it lacks a woody stem and lives more than two years. It grows 90 to 100 centimeters (3 to 4 feet) tall and is covered with dark green leaves. The above-ground part of the plant dies each winter and regrows in spring. It flowers three to four weeks after sprouting. The flowers are white, pink, or purple with yellow stamens. After many years of cultivation, the potato has lost much of its ability to produce seeds. Only very rarely does a flower produce a fruit. These are called seed balls and look like small green tomatoes. Each contains up to three hundred seeds, which are sometimes planted in an effort to create new potato varieties. They should not be eaten as they have poisonous substances.
The below ground part of the potato plant continues to live after the above-ground has died in the winter. Food energy for growth in the next year, as protein, starch, and water is stored in the tubers of potatoes called rhizomes, which are connected to the root system. They are covered by an outer skin called the periderm. Inside the bark, which serves as a storage protein and starch. Inside the vascular ring that receives the starch in plant leaves and stems. The starch is moved outside the ring of vascular parenchyma cells that surround it. These cells are storage areas for greater tuber starch. Bone marrow, which is the center of the tuber is the main area of water storage. A potato plant grows between three and 20 tubers during the growing season.
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