Apple, Malus domestica, everybody like the fruit - Apples are the pomaceous fruits of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family (Rosaceae). Apple is one of the most cultivated fruit trees, and is the most famous of many members of the genus Malus, used by humans. The Apple tree comes from Western Asia, where its wild ancestor, Alma, which still exists today. There are over 7,500 known varieties of apples, resulting in a number of desired characteristics. Cultivars of the apple vary in their size and the final size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock.
At least 55 million tons of apples grown worldwide in 2005, worth about $ 10 billion. China produced about 35% of the total. United States of America is the second leading apple producer, with more than 7.5% of world production. Iran was third, followed by Turkey, Russia, Italy and India.
The apple provides a timber that is small and deciduous, reaching 3 to 12 meters (9.8 to 39 m) tall, with broad crown Twiggy often close. The leaves are alternate simple ovals 5 to 12 cm long and 3-6 cm (1.2 to 2.4 inches) wide on a 2 to 5 cm (0.79 to 2.0 in) petiole with a peak sharp, serrated margins and a slightly downy underside. Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneous with the budding leaves. The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually turns, five petals, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters (0.98 to 1.4 inches) in diameter. The fruit ripens in autumn, and is typically 5 to 9 cm (2.0 to 3.5 inches) in diameter. In the middle of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-pointed star, each carpel containing 2:59 seeds, called cores.
The wild ancestor of Malus domestica is Malus sieversii in the wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China, and perhaps as Malus sylvestris.
In 2010, announced a consortium led by Italy, they had decoded the complete genome of an apple (Golden delicious variety). It had about 57,000 genes, the largest number of all plant genomes studied so far and more genes than the human genome (approximately 30,000). (@ agriculture commodities)