About Rubber, agricultural commodities - The rubber was known to indigenous peoples in the America before the arrival of European explorers. In 1525, reported from Padre d'Anghieria, he had seen Mexican tribes playing with rubber band balls. The first scientific study of the rubber was made by Charles de la Condamine, when he found it during his trip to Peru in 1735. A French engineer who Condamine met in Guyana, Fresnau studied rubber on its home ground, and concluded that it was nothing but a "type of condensed resin oil."
The first use of rubber is an eraser. It was Magellan, a descendant of the famous Portuguese navigator, who suggested this use. In England, Priestley popularized it as they became known as India rubber. The word rubber in Portuguese - borracha - comes from one of the first applications of this product, when used to replace the leather containers Borrachas the Portuguese used to transport wine.
Returning to the work of La Condamine, Macquer suggested that the rubber could be used to produce flexible tubes. Since then, a number of craftsmen have been involved in the rubber goldsmith Bernard, Winch herbalist, Grossart, Landoll and others. In 1820, British industrialist Nadier produced rubber threads and tried to use in clothing accessories. This was the moment when America was captured by the rubber boom and waterproof footwear used by indigenous peoples has become a success. Waterproof fabrics and snow boots were manufactured in New England.
In 1832, the factory was established, Rosburg. Unfortunately, the cold affect the natural vulcanized rubber products, in which case they are fragile and tend to gum together if left in the sun, all to discourage the consumer. For a long time trying to develop a method to update properties of the rubber (as well as nitric acid) that almost destroyed it in 1840, Goodyear discovered vulcanization, almost by accident.
An interesting fact: in 1815, a humble Sawyer - was one of the leading manufacturers in the UK - Hancock. He had invented a rubber mattress and through an association with the Macintosh, he produces the famous raincoat called "Macintosh." He also discovered how to cut, roll and press the rubber on an industrial scale. He also noted the importance of heat during the pressing process, and built a machine for this purpose.
MacIntosh discovered the use of benzene as a solvent, while Hancock has found that, before peeling and heating were needed to ensure that the rubber is completely dissolved. Hancock also discovered how to make rubber balls. Finally, in 1842, Hancock came into possession of vulcanized rubber produced by Goodyear, search and find the secret of vulcanization, which brought him an immense fortune.
In 1845, RW Thomson invented the pneumatic tire, the inner ring, and a textured tread. In 1850, the toy is made of rubber, as well as solid and hollow balls for golf and tennis. Velocipede invention by Michaux that in 1869 led to the discovery of solid rubber, after which a hollow rubber, and finally re-invented the tire, because Thomson's discovery was forgotten. The physical properties of rubber were finally studied, Bouchardt discovered how to polymerize isoprene between 1879 and 1882, obtaining products with properties similar to rubber. The first is a bicycle tire in 1830, and in 1895, Michelin was bold idea to adapt the tire to the car. Since then, the rubber was an excellent position in the global market.
As Rubber is an important raw material, which has a major role in modern civilization, chemists soon became curious to learn more about its composition, in order to synthesize it. In the nineteenth century, the work has focused on this goal, soon discovered that the rubber is an isoprene polymer.
The Russians and Germans broke fresh ground efforts to synthesize rubber. But the resulting products can not compete with natural rubber. Until the First World War that Germany - put pressure on the environment - has been developed in industrialized countries a synthetic version of this product. This was the beginning of a massive development in the field of synthetic rubber in the world, the production of elastomers.